New York: Restraining Orders
Order of Protection through Criminal Court
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A victim can seek both Family Court and Criminal orders of protection at the same time. A Criminal order of protection is obtained through criminal court with the assistance of a district attorney. Such orders have little value unless the protected party knows of their existence and their terms. However, unlike Washington state, which has a comprehensive database, New York’s system for processing/issuing such orders is not streamlined, and protected parties may be unaware of a current Criminal court order. Although the current law requires clerks of courts to provide protected parties with copies of orders of protection, it does not provide a procedure for doing so, and each county has crafted its own method of getting the current orders to protected parties; there is a huge discrepancy in the process from county to county.
Text of Statutes
1) N.Y. Crim. Pro. § 530.12 – Protection of Victims of Family Offenses
(1) When a criminal action is pending involving complaint charging any crime or violation between spouses, former spouses, parent and child, or between members of the same family or household . . . the court, in addition to any other powers conferred upon it by this chapter, may issue a temporary order of protection in conjunction with any securing order committing the defendant to the custody of the sheriff or as a condition of any order of recognizance or bail or an adjournment in contemplation of dismissal. In addition to any other conditions, such an order may require the defendant: (a) to stay away from the home, school, business, or place of employment of the family or household member or of any designated witness, provided that the court shall make a determination and shall state such determination in a written decision or on the record, whether to impose a condition pursuant to this paragraph, provided further, however, that failure to make such a determination shall not affect the validity of such temporary order of protection. In making such determination, the court shall consider, but shall not be limited to consideration of, whether the temporary order of protection is likely to achieve its purpose in the absence of such a condition, conduct subject to prior orders of protection, prior incidents of abuse, past or present injury, threats, drug or alcohol abuse, and access to weapons; (b) to permit a parent, or a person entitled to visitation by a court order or a separation agreement, to visit the child at stated periods; (c) to refrain from committing a family offense . . . or any criminal offense against the child or against the family or household member of against any person to whom custody of the child is awarded, or from harassing, intimidating or threatening such persons; (c) to refrain from committing a family offense . . . or any criminal offense against the child or against the family or household member or against any person to whom custody of the child is awarded, or form harassing, intimidating or threatening such persons; (d) to refrain from acts of commission or omission that creates an unreasonable risk to the health, safety and welfare of a child, family or household member’s life or health; (e) to permit a designated party to enter the residence during a specified period of time in order to remove personal belongings not in issue . . . .
(2) The court may issue a temporary order of protection ex parte upon the filing of an accusatory instrument and for good cause shown. When a family court order of protection is modified, the criminal court shall forward a copy of such modified order to the family court issuing the order of protection . . . .
(3) The court may issue or extend a temporary order of protection ex parte or on notice simultaneously with the issuance of a warrant for the arrest of defendant. Such temporary order of protection may continue in effect until the day the defendant subsequently appears in court pursuant to such warrant or voluntarily or otherwise.1
2) N.Y. Crim. Pro. § 530.13 – Protection of Victims of Crimes, Other than Family Offenses
(1) When any criminal action is pending, and the court has not issued a temporary order of protection pursuant to section 530.12 of this article, the court, in addition to the other powers conferred upon it by this chapter, may for good cause shown issue a temporary order of protection in conjunction with any securing order committing the defendant to the custody of the sheriff or as a condition of a pre-trial release, or as a condition of release on bail or an adjournment in contemplation of dismissal. In addition to any other conditions, such an order may require that the defendant:
(a) Stay away from the home, school, business or place of employment of the victims of, or designated witnesses to, the alleged offense;
(b) Refrain from harassing, intimidating, threatening or otherwise interfering with the victims of the alleged offense and such members of the family or household of such victims or designated witnesses as shall be specifically named by the court in such order;
(c) To refrain from intentionally injuring or killing, without justification, any companion animal the defendant knows to be owned, possessed, leased, kept or held by such victim or victims or a minor child residing in such victim or victims’ household. . . .
In addition to the foregoing provisions, the court may issue an order, pursuant to section two hundred twenty-seven-c of the real property law, authorizing the party for whose benefit any order of protection has been issued to terminate a lease or rental agreement pursuant to section two hundred twenty-seven-c of the real property law.
(d) The court may issue a temporary order of protection under this section ex parte upon the filing of an accusatory instrument and for good cause shown.
(e) The court may issue or extend a temporary order of protection under this section ex parte simultaneously with the issuance of a warrant for the arrest of the defendant. Such temporary order of protection may continue in effect until the day the defendant subsequently appears in court pursuant to such warrant or voluntarily or otherwise.
(f) *Upon conviction of any offense, where the court has not issued an order of protection pursuant to section 530.12 of this article, the court may, in addition to any other disposition, including a conditional discharge or youthful offender adjudication, enter an order of protection. Where a temporary order of protection was issued, the court shall state on the record the reasons for issuing or not issuing an order of protection. The duration of such an order shall be fixed by the court and; (A) in the case of a felony conviction, shall not exceed the greater of: (i) eight years from the date of such conviction, or (ii) eight years from the date of the expiration of the maximum term of an indeterminate or the term of a determinate sentence of imprisonment actually imposed; or (B) in the case of a conviction for a class A misdemeanor, shall not exceed the greater of: (i) five years from the date of such conviction, or (ii) five years from the date of the expiration of the maximum term of a definite or intermittent term actually imposed; or (C) in the case of a conviction for any other offense, shall not exceed the greater of: (i) two years from the date of the conviction, or I(ii) two years from the date of the expiration of the maximum term of a definite or intermittent term actually imposed. For purposes of determining the duration of an order of protection entered pursuant to this subdivision, a conviction shall be deemed to include a conviction that has been replaced by a youthful-offender adjudication.
Research is ongoing. My search of New York cases citing this statute did not reveal any cases that are factually relevant or analogous to WMC’s target situations.
New York criminal court offers two types of orders of protection: (1) full (also known as a “stay away” order; and (2) limited. A full order of protection is a document signed by the defendant and a judge ordering the defendant to have no contact whatsoever with the protected person. This includes physically staying away from the person, the person’s home, and the person’s school or place of business. Further, a full order requires a defendant to refrain from communicating with a protected person via mail, telephone, email, or any other form of electronic communication (e.g. text messages, instant messages). Full orders of protection also prevent a defendant from sending messages to the protected parties via third parties. In contrast, a limited order of protection instructs a defendant to refrain from “assault, stalking, harassment, aggravated harassment, menacing, reckless endangerment, disorderly conduct, criminal mischief, intimidation, threats, or any other criminal offense” against the protected person or persons, making them subject to additional charges for such actions.
When a case is ongoing, a temporary order of protection usually extends from one court date to the next. Accordingly, a court has the flexibility to determine whether to reissue another temporary order of protection, whenever the case is before it.
When a case involving an order of protection is dismissed, the order of protection is immediately dismissed as well. However, if the case results in a conviction (whether through a plea or through a conviction won at trial), the court will usually issue a “final order of protection,” the duration of which can range from six months to ten years, depending on the nature of the conviction.
It is a crime to violate an order of protection. A routine violation of an order of protection, e.g. a phone call in violation of a full order of protection, may result in a charge of Criminal Contempt in the Second Degree.2 A violent violation of an order of protection, e.g. a threat or assault against the protected party, can result in a felony charge of Criminal Contempt in the First Degree.3 Moreover, when a person violates a temporary order of protection, he or she can be subject to revocation of their bail or liberty.
- For the statute’s full text, please see N.Y. Crim. Proc. § 530.12, available at http://law.onecle.com/new-york/criminal-procedure/CPL0530.12_530.12.html (last visited Apr. 28, 2012). ↩
- N.Y. Penal Law § 215.50(3). ↩
- N.Y. Penal Law § 215.51(b). Repeat violators can also be subject to felony charges under N.Y. Penal Law §215.51(c). ↩
Order of Protection through Family Court
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There are two types of family court protection orders: (1) temporary ex parte orders; and (2) final orders of protection. When a victim applies for an order of protection, a judge may issue a temporary order of protection if he or she believes there is “good cause” to do so.1 A temporary order usually lasts until a victim can have a full court hearing, which may not happen for many court dates. If the hearing does not occur on the first date a victim returns to court, the judge may extend the order of protection from court date to court date.2 On the date of the hearing, the abuser will have an opportunity to attend the full court hearing and present his or her side. The judge then evaluates the evidence and decides whether to issue a final order of protection.3 A judge usually grants an order for up to two years, unless he or she determines the existence of one or more “aggravating circumstances,” which could cause the order to last for up to five years. Such circumstances include: (1) physical injury or serious injury; (2) the use of a dangerous instrument; (3) history of repeated violations of prior orders of protection by the abuser; (4) prior convictions for crimes against the victim by the abuser; (5) the exposure of any family or household member to physical injury by the abuser; and (6) prior incidents and behaviors of the abuser that make the judge believe the abuser is an immediate/ongoing danger to the victim and any members of his or her family/household.4
Text of Statute
N.Y. Court Family Court Act (“N.Y. F.C.A.”) § 812 - Procedures for family offense proceedings.
1) Jurisdiction. The family court and criminal courts shall have concurrent jurisdiction over any proceeding concerning acts which would constitute disorderly conduct, harassment in the first degree, harassment in the second degree, aggravated harassment in the second degree, sexual misconduct, forcible touching, sexual abuse in the third degree, sexual abuse in the second degree as set forth in subdivision one of section 130.60 of the penal law, stalking in the first degree, stalking in the fourth degree, criminal mischief, menacing in the second degree, menacing in the third degree, reckless endangerment, assault in the second degree, assault in the third degree or an attempted assault between spouses or former spouses, or between parent and child, or between members of the same family or household except that if the respondent would not be criminally responsible by reason of age pursuant to section 30.00 of the penal law, then the family court shall have exclusive jurisdiction over such proceeding. Notwithstanding a complainant’s election to proceed in family court, the criminal court shall not be divested of jurisdiction to hear a family offense proceeding pursuant to this section. For purposes of this article, “disorderly conduct” includes disorderly conduct not in a public place. For purposes of this article, “members of the same family or household” shall mean the following:
(1) persons related by consanguinity or affinity;
(2) persons legally married to one another;
(3) persons formerly married to one another regardless of whether they still reside in the same household;
(4) persons who have a child in common regardless of whether such persons have been married or have lived together at any time; and
(5) persons who are not related by consanguinity or affinity and who are or have been in an intimate relationship regardless of whether such persons have lived together at any time. Factors the court may consider in determining whether a relationship is an “intimate relationship” include but are not limited to: the nature or type of relationship regardless of whether the relationship is sexual in nature; the frequency of interaction between the persons; and the duration of the relationship. Neither a casual acquaintance nor ordinary fraternization between two individuals in business or social contexts shall be deemed to constitute and “intimate relationship.”
2) Information to petitioner or complainant. The chief administrator of the courts shall designate the appropriate persons, including, but not limited to district attorneys, criminal and family court clerks, corporation counsels, county attorneys, victims assistance unit staff, probation officers, warrant officers, sheriffs, police officers or any other law enforcement officials, to inform any petitioner or complainant bringing a proceeding under this article, before such proceeding is commenced, of the procedures available for the institution of family offense proceedings, including but not limited to the following:
(1) That there is concurrent jurisdiction with respect to family offenses in both family court and the criminal courts;
(2) That a family court proceeding is a civil proceeding and is for the purpose of attempting to stop the violence, end the family disruption and obtain protection. Referrals for counseling or counseling services, are available through probation for this purpose;
(3) That a proceeding in the criminal courts is for the purpose of prosecution of the offender and can result in a criminal conviction of the offender;
(4) That a proceeding or action subject to the provisions of this section is initiated at the time of the filing of an accusatory instrument or family court petition, not at the time of arrest, or request for arrest, if any;
(5) That an arrest may precede the commencement of a family court or a criminal court proceeding, but an arrest is not a requirement for commencing either proceeding; provided, however, that the arrest of an alleged offender shall be made under the circumstances described in subdivision four of section 140.10 of the criminal procedure law;
(6) That notwithstanding a complainant’s election to proceed in family court, the criminal court shall not be divested of jurisdiction to hear a family offense proceeding pursuant to this section.
3) Official responsibility. No official or other person designated pursuant to subdivision two of this section shall discourage or prevent any person who wishes to file a petition or sign a complaint from having access to any court for that purpose.
4) Official forms. The chief administrator of the courts shall prescribe an appropriate form to implement subdivision two of this section.
5) Notice. Every police officer, peace officer or district attorney investigating a family offense under this article shall advise the victim of the availability of a shelter or other services in the community, and shall immediately give the victim written notice of the legal rights and remedies available to a victim of a family offense under the relevant provisions of the criminal procedure law, the family court act, and the domestic relations law. Such notice shall be available in English and Spanish, and, if necessary, shall be delivered orally and shall include but not be limited to the following statement: “If you are the victim of domestic violence, you may request that the officer assist you in providing for your safety and that of your children, including providing information on how to obtain a temporary order of protection. You may also request that the officer assist you in obtaining your essential personal effects and locating and taking you, or assist in making arrangement to take you, and your children to a safe place within such officer’s jurisdiction, including, but not limited to, a domestic violence program, a family member’s or a friend’s residence, or a similar place of safety. When the officer’s jurisdiction is more than a single county, you may ask the officer to take you or make arrangements to take you and your children to a place of safety in the county where the incident occurred. If you or your children are in need of medical treatment, you have the right to request that the officer assist you in obtaining such medical treatment. You may request a copy of any incident reports at no cost from the law enforcement agency. You have the right to seek legal counsel of your own choosing and if you proceed in family court and if it is determined that you cannot afford an attorney, one must be appointed to represent you without cost to you. You may ask the district attorney or law enforcement officer to file a criminal complaint. You also have the right to file a petition in the family court when a family offense has been committed against you. You have the right to have your petition and request for an order of protection filed on the same day you appear in court, and such request must be heard that same day or the next day court is in session. Either court may issue an order of protection from conduct constituting a family offense which could include, among other provisions, an order for the respondent or defendant to stay away from you and your children. The family court may also order the payment of temporary child support and award temporary custody of your children. If the family court is not in session, you may seek immediate assistance from the criminal court in obtaining an order of protection.
Research is ongoing. My search of New York cases citing this statute did not reveal any cases that are factually relevant or analogous to WMC’s target situations.
To get an order of protection in family court, the victim must allege that the abuser committed one or more “family offenses” against him or her in a “family offense petition,” in situations where the victim and the abuser are/were related by blood, marriage, in an intimate relationship, or have a child in common: (1) disorderly conduct; (2) harassment (first or second degree); (3) aggravated harassment (second degree); (4) stalking (first, second, third, or fourth degree); (5) menacing (second or third degree); (6) reckless endangerment; (7) assault (second or third degree); (8) attempted assault; (9) criminal mischief; (10) sexual misconduct; (11) forcible touching; (12) sexual abuse (in the second or third degree); (13) criminal obstruction of breathing or blood circulation; (14) strangulation (first or second degree).5
In 2008, the New York legislature passed a law stating that those who are/were in an intimate relationship would be eligible for an order of protection in family court even if they have not lived together and were not related by blood or marriage. This includes same-sex couples or heterosexual couples who are/were dating but have no child in common. An “intimate” relationship need not be sexual; the judge considers the nature of the relationship and the length of time/frequency of contact between the parties.6
The New York legislature passed another law in August 2010, which provides that a petition for an order of protection cannot be dismissed or denied based solely on the fact that the incident(s) the victim alleged happened long before he or she applied for the order.7 The law applies to any new petitions filed after 8/13/2010 or any cases filed before 8/13/2010 that were still pending in court on that date.
A victim can file a petition in the county where the abuse occurred, in the county where he or she lives, or in the county where the abuser lives.8 But if the victim lives in New York, and the abuser lives out of state, the victim must identify at least one of the abusive acts in her petition that occurred in New York for the court to be able to grant an order of protection.9 If the abuser threatens the victim on the phone, or through text messages or emails, these acts may be considered as having “taken place” in New York if the victim received the phone calls, texts or emails while in New York.
In family court, both parties have the right to an attorney.
An order of protection from another state is still enforceable in New York. A victim can register his or her out-of-state order of protection in New York with assistance from a local Family Court, Criminal Court or police station.10
- N.Y. Fam. Ct. Act § 828(1)(a). ↩
- N.Y. Fam. Ct. Act § 828(3). ↩
- N.Y. Fam. Ct. Act § 842. ↩
- N.Y. Fam. Ct. Act § 827(a)(vii). ↩
- N.Y. Fam. Ct. Act § 812(1). ↩
- N.Y. Fam. Ct. Act § 812(1)(e). ↩
- N.Y. Fam. Ct. Act § 551; N.Y. Dom. Rel. Law § 240(3)(8)(e). ↩
- N.Y. Fam. Ct. Act § 818. ↩
- N.Y. Fam. Ct. Act § 154(c)(1). ↩
- See New York Unified Court System, New York Court Help, available at http://www.courts.state.ny.us/courthelp/faqs/domesticviolence.html (last visited Apr. 28, 2012). ↩